|AIR INFORMATION SENSE|
YOU'RE IN THE READY ROOM or in the ready tent and the skipper drops in and says - "We're going to fly up to Zipper Zu at 1500 today and blow up the bicycle factory." It's 1330 now and you never heard of Zipper Zu before, let alone the bicycle factory. There are a lot of things you want to know and that minute hand isn't traveling any slower.
You'd certainly like to know where Zipper Zu is. Maybe it's on some chart you have handy and then again maybe it isn't. You might be a little curious to know why you're heading up there to bomb a bicycle factory. A little information on navigation might come in handy, especially if you are going to have to make a surprise attack and keep out of sight of land, or enemy lookouts, or whatnots, on the way up. How about the weather? Cloud coverage for hide-and-seek, weather freaks like williwaws that you didn't run into back ia Texas, or Florida, or Kansas, or at home. And how about the country you're going to fly over, or the islands you may sight? Is it hilly, flat, mountainous, wooded, wet, dry, healthy, malarial, and where can a pilot find friends? That will be mighty important if you have to set down around there. And it can be mighty helpful in navigating too - like taking the first road to the right after passing the church down by the river. Rivers and mountains and towns and plantations and railroad tracks, you know what they did for you on your first cross-country flight! You can't make any mistakes now, so it's a good idea to get those signposts fixed in your mind.
That's a lot of dope to pick up in the little time you have available. Of course, you know a lot of it in a general way, but you may be in a new sector or maybe some later information has come in. You'd give plenty to know someone who had worked it out and had the latest word and could help you. Well, he's right there - the Air Combat Information officer. ..... INFORMATION PLEASE - That's the job of the Air Combat Information officer and he's trained to do it. He's there to do that part of the work for you so you can concentrate on the job of flying and fighting.
If you are assigned to duty in the Aleutians, the first thing you ought to do is to overcome your desire to outfit yourself like an Arctic explorer. You won't need a reindeer-hide parka, snowshoes, or a team of malamutes. As a matter of fact, there isn't anything that you need to go out and buy. The islands have become a chain of stations stretching west for a thousand miles across the North Pacific and the Bering Sea. They all have supply depots and ships service stores, and you'll find that experience has made the officers in charge very familiar with clothing and equipment needs.
They will issue you some articles that you may not expect. You'll get special flight gear, of course, but don't be surprised if you also get some Army equipment-trousers, shirts, and boots, for instance. The reason for this is that life on a base in the Aleutians is more like that of the Army than the Navy, and you dress accordingly. .......
In operating airplanes in the Far North there are several manners, customs, and usages to be practiced which are useful in keeping you from making an egg of yourself in front of the Eskimos.
This pamphlet is not intended in any way to modify, replace, or otherwise affect the carefully worked out doctrine laid down in USF publications. It is intended to give you a few tips on some of the fine points of operations under USF doctrine. All these tips come from veterans of successful carrier operations. Some of the details will be different on some carriers.
Not every flyer goes rafting most won't but there will be enough pilots and air crews dunked into the briny deep to make it a sound idea to get the dope now while you're dry. Naturally most of us prefer to do our cruising at sea in an air-borne plane, rather than in a surface raft. Unfortunately, however, there is a bottom to all gas tanks and even occasionally a Nip may give you the wet seat. Or perhaps you're just plain lost. That is just the time to steady down and take it easy. While you're still in the air check your navigation once more. Did you make an error? Is it too late to fly back to the location you should have been heading for all the time? It would be a big help to your base to receive your corrected position they might even get a bearing from the transmission. All of this, of course, depends upon the tactical situation prevailing at the time.
Flat-Hatting is a form of flying that discourages longevity. Originally the term simply meant flying low needlessly. That definition has been expanded to include grandstanding, or showing off flying foolishly and carelessly. The term itself is said to have arisen from an incident in which the wheel of a low-flying plane struck a pedestrian on the head and crushed a new top hat he was wearing. Besides being grounded for quite a stretch, the pilot had to buy the pedestrian a new hat, costing $12.50, including tax. Hence, the name "Flat-Hatting" which is probably as good a name as any.
|FUEL SAVING SENSE|
There are just two kinds of aviators the fueled and the fooled.
The first kind arrive by plane. The second kind arrive by parachute, palanquin-raft, rickshaw, wheelbarrow, ambulance, stretcher, or other conveyance. Occasionally they don't arrive at all. Possibly you prefer the more picturesque vehicle, but the Navy has a definite prejudice in favor of your arriving in what you started out in the plane. Eventually you can visit the ruins of Tokyo and gratify your craving for a rickshaw ride while examining the results of your bombing.
Of course you can be fooled legitimately. The carrier may change course and the tactical situation be such that you cannot be notified or you may have to drop a fuel tank. But if you've been saving gas, and watching your fuel consumption you may have a good chance to set down on an island or on an emergency field. At the worst, you will have enough to make your dunking a lot easier, because a forced landing at sea is greatly helped if you can use your engine.
HOW MUCH DO YOU WEIGH? IF YOU WANT TO SEE, look out for g. Yes, g stands for Gravity. It stands for one times gravity. You are withstanding one g right now sitting in that chair. One g is normal. You have been withstanding one g all your life. When you come down in an elevator and stop quickly you may withstand two g's (or more). Two g's means two times gravity and they make you twice as heavy momentarily. If you jump off a chair and hit the deck without bending your knees you can create 10 g's or morefor a split fraction of a second. Your weight is multiplied by 10 in that brief moment. When you slow down, speed up, or change direction while walking or in an airplane you create g's. "Okay," you say, "If I can withstand 10 g's jumping off a chair, why can't I withstand 10 g's in an airplane without blacking out?" The winning answer is that you usually withstand the g's longer in an airplane ... for several seconds, not fractions of seconds. time is the thing. If you "took" the g's which you created jumping off the chair for as long as several seconds you or anybody else would pass out colder than a penguin. Your blood like the rest of you gets heavier under the effects of g so heavy in fact that the heart cannot pump it to the brain. The brain "starves" from lack of oxygen and WHAMBO out go the lights. .......
On beginning training as an air gunner, you can soon find out the details of your job by looking over the syllabi of the gunnery training school. There is no need to tell you what an important part you will play in the operation of our dive bombers, scouts, torpedo, and observation planes. What you will want to know, however, is what makes a crack air gunner, the man who can always give more than he gets, who paints enemy flags on his plane, who can give newcomers useful information, and who is much sought after by flying officers. This pamphlet attempts to show, step by step, how such men are made.
THIS MEANS YOU
"As you from this day start the world as a man, I trust that your future conduct in life will prove you both an officer and a gentlemen. Recollect that you must be a seaman to be an officer; and also that you cannot be a good officer without being a gentleman." That was Lord Nelson's advice to a young man just appointed a midshipman; his meaning applies equally well to you, as a Naval Aviation Cadet. As Lord Nelson was not a man who dealt in double talk, and as he was one of the great naval officers of all time, it's a good idea to look into what he meant by being a gentleman. It's a word that means a lot of different things to a lot of different people. It's important for you to know what it means in the Navy.
If you like to breathe don't be self-conscious about it. The best medical opinion states definitely that breathing is not only normal - it's healthy. This has to be qualified, of course. Breathing water, illuminating gas, carbon monoxide, etc., is not healthy at all. Breathing air is what we're talking about - breathing enough air that contains enough oxygen. Let's first take a look at the broad principle behind the relation of air and oxygen. There are a lot of misconceptions with regard to breathing and air and we'll do well to knock them in the head right away. In the first place, remember that the percentage of oxygen in the air is the same from sea level up to the atmosphere ceiling of 70,000 feet. Then, you ask, why worry up to that height? Hold on to your oxygen masks, men, we're going to tell you.
The primary purpose of this booklet is to familiarize you as thoroughly as possible with the various factors of making an emergency jump from your plane the reason for the jump being to save your life. Obviously, every eventuality cannot be covered. Whether you are jumping because of engine failure, fire, loss of control, weather conditions, or due to the effects of enemy aircraft gunfire or A. A. fire, means a difference in the speed and attitude of your aircraft at the moment of bailing, your altitude, and your frame of mind. All this booklet will do for you is picture generally when and how to go over the side, what happens when you do, and why it happens. It will also give you the corrective procedures for the things that could work to your disadvantage during the process. This booklet will not jump for you. But short of that it should answer any question that may enter your mind!
The first thing to do in preparing for patrol duty is to realize that you must be a reporter as well as an aviator. You will be flying a plane, of course, and part of the time you may be encountering conditions that will test your knowledge of aviation severely. But your primary mission is to get the plane to take you places where you can learn what the Base wants to know. Your job is to find out things and report them. You are expected to be a mobile observation post. This observation post may be moving over domestic waters; it may be roving over the Bering Sea, or in the South Pacific, or off the coast of Africa, but the principle of scouting remains the same. You are expected to find out what they want to know back at the base, and you are expected to tell them as briefly and comprehensively as possible.
|PILOT ERROR SENSE|
Probably you have found out already that these are very helpful to you and your career. On account of your Wings, people envy you. And Wings help you to make friends - particularly, they help you to make girl friends. But unless you watch yourself, your Wings can help you to make less, agreeable things, mistakes, for instance. In fact, there are so many dumb mistakes you can make in the Navy that they have been classified as to type, and various rates have been established for them.
You're flying along and feeling all right and all of a sudden a flock of Mitsubishis comes up on your tail and you're in for it. You're hit, but you're not out of control. You go down, on the wrong side of the island, and you're a prisoner. Which brings us to the subject of today's lesson. What are you going to tell your hosts? The answer: (1) YOUR NAME (2) YOUR RANK (3) YOUR SERIAL NUMBER (4)* ....... * (There isn't anything else. Nothing. Number 4, 5, 23, or 40. Once you've delivered yourself of your name, rank, and your serial number, pipe down. You can, according to Unofficial Military Law, Section 284B, grunt, whistle, wheeze, or cluck, but don't SAY anything else. In short, SHUT UP.)
Now, if everybody would just observe these simple rules of captive etiquette there wouldn't be any need for this sermon.
|RADIO DISCIPLINE SENSE|
Your radio may have been manufactured in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, but it can be the best weapon the opposition has. So many of our own broadcasters are giving away information to the enemy, the F.B.I, should quit hunting transmitters in Mata Hari's bustle and concentrate on the TBF. That innocent-seeming radio can be a double-edged weapon. Properly employed it may mean the difference between messing up the Japs and messing up ourselves. Reports from the Fleet stress the danger to our side of pilots who pay no attention to the rules for using it. At this stage of the war everybody should know that even the most insignificant violation of radio discipline can:
1. Endanger our own forces by letting the enemy know our strength, location, and intentions.
2. Fail to give our side necessary information.
3. Foul up carefully-laid plans.
4. Interfere with rescue operations.
5. Waste time.
An impressive list for a gadget supposed to help, not hinder. Unless you use it smartly, the thousand-dollar radio in your plane isn't worth ten cents in Confederate money to us. It requires at least as much attention as drawing to an inside straight. The difference is, if you lose out on using your radio sensibly, the results are considerably more disastrous.
|RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION SENSE|
AS THE ENEMY WILL TESTIFY, The only really safe place around any Allied gun is behind it. This may prove a difficult position for you to maintain, however, as it is often necessary for Naval aviators to fly about and drop heavy objects on the enemy. During such times of hurly-burly you will be playing clay pigeon to a large audience of Allied guns, any one of which can shoot the pants off you if the guy behind it pulls that string. Also, you yourself will be chauffering a row of cannons of assorted sizes, each capable of blowing large holes in anything you decide large holes will look good in. The total situation, as anyone will tell you, is fraught with danger. Meaning that unless everybody concerned keeps his head, somebody concerned is going to lose his head. The only solution is for YOU: (1) To refrain from blasting away at innocent parties, and (2) To make sure that innocent parties don't blast away at you. FROM THIS .... it would appear that the whole responsibility rests on YOU, which is exactly where it rests. If everybody on the team makes sure that he personally doesn't pot any of his teammates, and that none of his teammates pot him, then the whole problem will be automatically solved. Everybody on the Allied team will be immune to accidents involving gunfire, and we can all concentrate on killing the enemy instead of each other. Which is the interesting basis of the twin keep-alive sciences of RECOGNITION and IDENTIFICATION. Pay attention to RECOGNITION and IDENTIFICATION as you go along, and you'll keep going along! You'll save the Navy all that bother of sending 10,000 leaves of Uncle Sam's lettuce to your next of kin!
One of the best-kept secrets of this war is the fact that you aren't supposed to give away secrets to the enemy. There have been several attempts to spread this information around, but nothing much has come of them. At parties, in saloons, and on the streetin any place where people congregatetongues are endlessly wagging. The bent-eared agents of Hitler and Hirohito are in constant transit loaded with valuable statistics. Guarding our secrets from the enemy is called Security, which is exactly what it should be called. The first and foremost item of Security is information, although Security also covers such things as protecting installations and supplies from sabotage, and Fifth Column Activities. Information comes first, however.
Men who know most about sharks are the men who fear them the least. That is not to be taken as the toastmaster's old saw: "To know them is to love them." Nobody loves a shark. Deep-sea sailors often fear them. Commercial fishermen hate them. Scientists have not dignified the breed with a great deal of intensive study. As a result landlubbers will believe any shark story they hear, provided it is gory enough. It is true that, if you get forced down in any tropical waters, you may come in contact with sharks. However, the more you know about them and the fewer legends about them you believe, the happier you will be in your predicament. Calm, intelligent conduct will enhance your chances of survival more than anything else known to date. Any carnivorous fishand that includes most of them from the tiniest minnow to the monstrous so-called "man-eater" tiger sharkwill go for a freshly cut piece of meat. It makes little difference whether the meat is from a fish or land animal. To put it on the line, at the outset of this pamphlet, there are a few authenticated cases of sharks attacking and killing human beings. But, remember that there also are authenticated cases of humans getting struck by lightning. One writer stated the chances of being killed by lightning were greater than the chances of being killed by a shark.
|SUPPORT AIRCRAFT SENSE|
Since nobody reads a foreword, this may be regarded as an appendix. Back up to it if you need it. You will need the foreword only if you failed to get the word. The word, in this case, was the use of support aircraft in an amphibious operation as told to you by one of the air support training instructors. This introduction is really intended just for Dilbert, but anyone can look at the cartoons. Even if you are another of those characters who become glassy-eyed at plain print, you can always get a bang out of pictures of Dilbert doing dumb things.
What the instructor was saying was that Naval Aviation, from Tarawa to Eniwetok, to Saipan, to Guam, to the Philippines, has finally perfected its role in an amphibious operation. Support aircraft doctrine grew directly out of these battles, by the method of trial and error. Since conclusions have been reached, it is requested that further experimentation by pilots, no matter how good their intentions, be discontinued.
WHY DID THE NAVY MAKE A TAXI SIGNALMAN OUT OF YOU?
WHY weren't you neatly attired in mop and pail, and sent out with the others to massage the deck of that battleship?
THE ANSWER IS simple and illuminating. No matter how fine a pilot a Naval Aviator may be, he needs a little help getting in and out of the parking lot. An airplane snorting around on the ground is about as self-sufficient as a blindfolded whale trying to walk down Fifth Avenue. Airplanes are not designed to be driven around on the ground like overgrown jeepsthey're built to fly!